## Proposition 14

 If there are any number of numbers, and others equal to them in multitude, which taken two and two together are in the same ratio, then they are also in the same ratio ex aequali. Let there be as many numbers as we please A, B, and C, and others equal to them in multitude D, E, and F, which taken two and two are in the same ratio, so that A is to B as D is to E, and B is to C as E is to F. I say that, ex aequali A is to C as D is to F. Since A is to B as D is to E, therefore, alternately A is to D as B is to E. VII.13 Again, since B is to C as E is to F, therefore, alternately B is to E as C is to F. But B is to E as A is to D, therefore A is to D as C is to F. Therefore, alternately A is to C as D is to F. VII.13 (V.11) Therefore, if there are any number of numbers, and others equal to them in multitude, which taken two and two together are in the same ratio, then they are also in the same ratio ex aequali. Q.E.D.
This is the numerical analogue of V.22 for magnitudes. It says that

if x1 : x2 = y1 : y2, x2 : x3 = y2 : y3, ... , and xn-1 : xn = yn-1 : yn, then x1 : xn = y1 : yn.

Euclid takes n to be 3 in his proof.

The proof is straightforward, and a simpler proof than the one given in V.22 for magnitudes. Note that at one point, the missing analogue of proposition V.11 is used: from the two proportions B : E = C : F and B : E = A : D, the conclusion A : D = C : F is drawn. Similar missing analogues of propositions from Book V are used in other proofs in book VII. See, for instance, VII.19 where V.7 and V.9 are used.

This proposition allows the use of extended proportions such as a : b : c = d : e : f as an abbreviation for three ordinary proportions.

This proposition is used occasionally in Books VIII and IX starting with VIII.1.

Next proposition: VII.15

Previous: VII.13

 Select from Book VII Book VII intro VII.Def.1-2 VII.Def.3-5 VII.Def.6-10 VII.Def.11-14 VII.Def.15-19 VII.Def.20 VII.Def.21 VII.Def.22 VII.1 VII.2 VII.3 VII.4 VII.5 VII.6 VII.7 VII.8 VII.9 VII.10 VII.11 VII.12 VII.13 VII.14 VII.15 VII.16 VII.17 VII.18 VII.19 VII.20 VII.21 VII.22 VII.23 VII.24 VII.25 VII.26 VII.27 VII.28 VII.29 VII.30 VII.31 VII.32 VII.33 VII.34 VII.35 VII.36 VII.37 VII.38 VII.39 Select book Book I Book II Book III Book IV Book V Book VI Book VII Book VIII Book IX Book X Book XI Book XII Book XIII Select topic Introduction Table of Contents Geometry applet About the text Euclid Web references A quick trip